The “Marijuana Jeopardy Game” is in full play as Proposition 19 otherwise known as the Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010 draws fire and support from every direction.
“I will take Proposition 19, the Supremacy and Commerce Clause for 100 Bill…”
Every media marijuana pundit wants to talk about the Supremacy and Commerce Clauses in this debate. They love to throw out the seminal Commerce Clause case of Gonzalez v. Raich as if the holding in that case would somehow invalidate Prop 19 if its passes.(not true). They then point out that the when there is a conflict between Federal law and state law, federal law wins the day and pat themselves on the back for being Constitutionally brilliant.
Lets try The Supremacy Clause for 10..
They are right to an extent. Federal law does win the day but only when there is a conflict between state and federal law. While it may sound like a conflict because California says you can toke and the Feds say you can’t, there is no constitutional conflict if Prop 19 passes. Why? The State of California is simply removing criminal penalties. This is within the powers reserved to the States under the 10th Amendment. California is not mandating that anyone do anything that violates Federal law and Congress has not evidenced any intent to completely occupy the field relating to the state police powers over drug control. A conflicting Federal law under these circumstances does not invalidate Prop 19.
People love to compare this debate to the Federal government battle with Arizona over immigration. Former DEA heads and people who should know better use it as fodder for a demand that the Feds sue California if Prop 19 passes. Jeapordy game over. They all go home broke. There is no comparison. In the Arizona case, Congress has in fact evidenced its intent to occupy the field of Immigration regulation. It is right there in the Constitution, Article 1, Section 8(SCOTUS says that naturalization includes immigration)
A perfect example of the constitutional confusion is an opinion piece written for CNN by Jeff Miron entitled “Don’t Buy The Hype” He states:
Prop 19’s passage could mean a Supreme Court showdown, which California would lose. In the 2005 Gonzalez v. Raich case, the court held that the Constitution’s commerce clause allows the federal government to bar individuals from cultivating marijuana on their own property for their own medicinal use.
That’s Marijuana Jeapordy for 5 points. Why so low? In a vacuum, without more context, it is a content empty and meaningless statement. No one, including California is disputing that the Federal government has the authority to enforce The Controlled Substance Act relating to marijuana if Prop 19 passes. Gonzalez v. Raich has settled this issue. Under certain conditions, the Federal government can enforce Federal law even when that law touches activities that the state may deem purely local in nature. My response to Mr. Miron, is “so what”. We know this. The Supreme Court has spoken. The feds won. I promise that the powers that be in California received a copy of the opinion. That in itself is not the “showdown”.
My turn to play Marijuana Jeapordy. I choose” practical application of The Commerce Clause and Supremacy Clause over Prop 19 for 500.
Lets start with basics. The seminal Commerce Clause case, Gonzales v. Raich means the Federal government can continue to enforce the Controlled Substance in California regardless of state law. That was the law before Prop 19 and will be the law if Prop 19 passes. It does NOT invalidate Prop 19. It means the DEA can still raid growers, Medical marijuana dispensaries, etc.” That is a big deal in that I expect the DEA to go on a raid binge in panic because they will no longer be able distinguish between the legal and illegal marijuana industry. They are going to want to make their point in the strongest terms. A panic spike in raids and arrests. This could lead to a Supreme Court showdown. It will ,however not just be about The Commerce Clause. We know that’s a loser for California. How do we know? They already lost! It will probably be related to a 10th Amendment constitutional concept called “Commandeering“.
If the Feds go on a raid and arrest spree, California may go into court and claim that the Federal Government through ultra-aggressive enforcement of The Controlled Substance act, has deliberately undermined state marijuana laws or “defacto re-criminalized” marijuana under state law. In the County of Santa Cruz. v. Holder, “Commandeering” was explained this way related to a DEA seizure of Marijuana pursuant to The Controlled Substance Act:
“The DEA seizure of Medical Marijuana violates The Tenth Amendment by preventing the state of California from implementing a duly enacted statute, The Compassionate Use Act Of 1996. Such seizures commandeer the police power of the State Of California…”
In my opinion, THAT is the real Jeapordy game. Anti-Commandeering for One Thousand! If the DEA goes hell bent on indiscriminate raids, including medical marijuana growers, how will the anti-commandeering doctrine come into play? In my opinion, if there is a “showdown” this is where it will be. The Santa Cruz case was voluntarily dismissed by agreement when the Obama administration issued its Medical Marijuana hands off memo. It however was dismissed with the stipulation that the case could be reinstated if the DEA resumed its raids.
What’s the practical effect of this. Mr. Miron is right for the wrong reasons. California probably loses a Anti-Commandeering showdown. My response is again, so what. Everything will calm down. The DEA will adjust. California will adjust. Prop 19(assuming it passes) will still be around. Tokers will toke. Growers will grow. The Ghost of Bob Marley will be watching over all of us…